Average Cost of a Canoe (With 32 Examples of New and Used Canoes)


Canoeing is great fun and is a popular outdoor activity, but considering buying one can be stressful and pricey. However, there are many different options for potential canoers that can be easy and affordable!

On average, a used canoe will cost about $400 but can range anywhere from $300 to $550 dollars. A brand new canoe will, on average, cost $900. This price can vary from $650 to 1,500 dollars depending on the quality, size, and brand.

Don’t dig into that savings account just yet! With such a wide variety of canoe options, anyone can find a canoe that’s perfect for them and their family. It just depends on finding the right one!

Average Cost of a Canoe

Buying a canoe is a big decision, especially because the average cost of a new canoe is around $900, maybe more. It’s definitely an investment and something that requires a lot of research on your part.

If you are looking to buy a used a canoe, you are looking at spending around $400, which is still a considerable amount for one item.

Most of the high-quality canoes, especially ones from highly-esteemed brands, will cost in the $1,000’s. If you are a casual canoer, you most likely will want to stay away from these, until you are ready to become serious about canoeing.

The price of your canoe will vary depending on the brand, the material it is made out of, the size, and whether it is used or not.

If you buy a canoe used, keep in mind that the sale price is up to the seller’s discretion. There may be average used prices out there, but some sellers will charge more based on the condition of the canoe and on how desperate they are to see the thing go. Always try to negotiate a fair price.

New vs. Used

Let’s start by looking at the condition the canoe is in when you buy it. This is obviously going to make a big difference in the price. Canoes depreciate like almost every other product out there.

As with buying a car, buying a new or used canoe has its pros and cons.

Used:

  • Cost less
  • Less value depreciation
  • Possibility of negotiations

BUT watch out for…

  • Prior damages
  • Lack of warranty
  • No returns

New:

  • Warranty available
  • Better conditions
  • Brand new/Never been used

BUT watch out for…

  • Higher prices
  • Great value loss
  • Sales Tax

All in all, there are pros and cons to everything! What’s important is choosing what is best for you.

As a general rule, the older the canoe is, the less expensive it will be. So if you are looking to try to sell your 20-year-old canoe, you might not be able to sell it for quite as much.

Now, let’s focus more on popular canoes and what they have to offer.

Canoe Prices – New and Used

The examples that are selected for this list are based on popular brands and models.

BrandModel New ($)Used ($)
1. MyCanoeOrigami Folding
Canoe
1,6001,290
2. Mad RiverAdventure 14 770525
3. Mad RiverAdventure 16880795
4. Mad RiverExplorer 162,460900
5. Grumman Double Ender 1,7301,550
6. GrummanSolo 1291,1601,000
7. Sun DolphinMackinaw 15.61,000550
8. Sun DolphinScout SS600400
9. Nova CraftProspector 15999780
10. Old Town Discovery 119 880700
11. Old TownDiscovery 1581,000680
12. Old TownPenobscot 1641,200900
13. Old Town Charles River1,100650
14. SevylorColorado520340
15. SevylorOgden 350260
16. SevylorRio399295
17. ClipperYukon1,5501,285
18. WenonahMinnesota II2,9001,500
19. WenonahKing Fisher2,7001,500
20. WenonahHeron2,5002,100
21. LifetimeKodiak700430
22. LifetimeEmotion Wasatch 130699575
23. Pelican15.5650400
24. Pelican Explorer 14.6 DLX550350
25. NorthStarFirebird2,8952,000
26. NorthStarB 172,8001,800
27. Lincoln Hidden Pond 1,400930
28. Lincoln Concord 1,600800
29. ClipperTripper1,5891,138
30. Coleman17′850375
31. Souris RiverQuetico 173,1452,500
32. Souris RiverProspector 162,7451,999

As you can see in the chart, most used canoes are several hundred dollars cheaper.

You might also note that some brands are much more expensive than others. Wenonah and Old Town are some of the more established brands, and they use high-quality materials for their canoes which is why their canoes range into the thousands.

Let’s break it down even further and look at each model.

1. MyCanoe – Origami Folding Canoe

Price New:$1,600

Price Used: $1,290

The origami folding canoe is a little more expensive than other canoes, but it is a beautiful canoe. Because the canoe folds it is easy to store and travel with. It is also very durable and well designed.

However, many users have found this canoe to be a pain to set up and break down. It also is not as stable and can get flooded with water easily.

Stats: Usually 14.6 feet, 52 lbs, and can hold up to two people.

Rating: 4.3/5

2. Mad River – Adventure 14

Price New: $770

Price Used: $525

Mad River is one of the top canoe brands. The Adventure 14 is very stable, durable, and comfortable. It also comes with adjustable seats and cup holders!

However, this canoe is quite heavy and is harder to maneuver and load, especially if being used by a solo canoer.

Stats: 14 feet, 75 lbs, and can hold up to three people.

Rating: 4.8/5

3. Mad River – Adventure 16

Price New: $880

Price Used: $795

The Adventure 16 lasts a long time, is durable, and it tracks straight. It has room for a trolling motor, and it is also very roomy.

However, many users have found that the transom is easily cracked and is a little difficult to repair. Also, the mount for a trolling motor is not close to the seat, which makes it harder to control.

Stats: 16 feet, 84 lbs, and can hold up to three people.

Rating: 4.7/5

4. Mad River – Explorer 16

Price New: $2,460

Price Used: $900

The Explorer 16 is very stiff and stable. It comes with adjustable seats and easy to control in rough waters.

However, it does not have high initial stability, which means it’s hard to get into. It is a slower canoe and does not offer a lot of space. The depreciation on this canoe is crazy as well.

Stats: 14.9 feet, 62 lbs, and can hold up to three people.

Rating: 4.5

5. Grumman – Double Ender

Price New: $1,730

Price Used: $1,550

Grumman is quickly becoming a rather popular brand amongst canoers. The Double Ender is a great canoe, for several reasons. It is strong and long-lasting as well as easy to move and carry. It also offers great stability, easy paddling and has flotation on each end making it impossible to sink!

The only true drawback about this canoe is its cost. It is expensive and most people are just not willing to spend the money on this canoe.

Stats: 17 feet, 85 lbs, and can hold up to three people.

Rating: 4.8/5

6. Grumman – Solo 129

Price New: $1,160

Price Used: $1,000

The Solo 129 is a great canoe! It is relatively lightweight and is easy to handle. It is easy to paddle and has high stability. Also, the Solo 129 can usually last a very long time.

However, it is on the more expensive side and is only sold in aluminum. Also, it is highly recommended that you do not stand up in this canoe.

Stats: 12.9 feet, 48 lbs, and can hold up to two people.

Rating: 4.9/5

7. Sun Dolphin – Mackinaw 15.6

Price New: $1,000

Price Used: $550

Sun Dolphin canoes are always highly reviewed. The Mackinaw is stable and durable. It’s a great family canoe and offers a lot of storage. It’s a great canoe for fishing and recreation.

However, the Mackinaw is a heavy canoe, which makes it hard to load, unload, and carry. It is not good for solo use, and I highly recommend buying this canoe in person. When shipped, many people complain about receiving the boat damaged.

Stats: 15.7 feet, 95 lbs, and can hold up to three people.

Rating: 4.5/5

8. Sun Dolphin – Scout SS

Price New: $600

Price Used: $400

The Scout SS (square stern) is one of the best selling canoes. The square stern offers room for a trolling motor, which increases its speed. It is a long-lasting canoe and is very durable. It is also easy to control and has good stability.

However, it is a heavy canoe and is not very fast without a motor. Also, there has been a lot of reports of false advertising with this canoe. This has led to problems with users.

Stats: 14 feet, 95 lbs, and can hold up to three people.

Rating: 4.4/5

9. Nova Craft – Prospector 15

Price New: $999

Price Used: $780

The Prospector 15 is a Canadian made canoe. It is usually made out of fiberglass, but can also be made out of TuffStuff, blue steel or Aramid Lite if desired. It will cost more.

It is easy to maneuver and paddle which makes it a great option for beginners. It is best for those who want a tripping boat.

Stats: 15 feet, 62 lbs and holds two people.

Rating: 4/5

10. Old Town – Discovery 119 Solo

Price New: $880

Price Used: $700

Old Town Canoes is one of the most popular canoe brands and have many best sellers. The 119 Solo canoe is very lightweight and lasts quite a long time. It is also very durable and it tracks well.

However, this canoe is not very fast and cannot be taken into deep water. Users have also had problems with the seats not being stable enough.

Stats: 11.9 feet, 49 lbs, and can only hold 1 person.

Rating: 4.7/5

11. Old Town – Discovery 158

Price New: $1,000

Price Used: $680

The Discovery 158 is actually listed as Tripsavvy’s top canoe of 2019! It stores great, is durable and stable, and it is built to last. It offers a lot of room and is comfortable.

This canoe is a bit pricier and is heavier. Some users have found it is hard to load up and if shipped it may be damaged.

Stats: 15.8 feet, 87 lbs, and can hold up to three people.

Rating: 4.2/5

12. Old Town – Penobscot 164

Price New: $1,200

Price Used: $900

The Penobscot 164 is a beautiful canoe with a great value! It offers high stability and is incredibly durable. It tracks straight and is easy to paddle. It is also a very fast canoe.

However, it is a heavy canoe and has low initial stability. Its load capacity is lacking and users have complained that the deck plate is wimpy.

Stats: 16.4 feet, 75 lbs, and can hold up to three people.

13. Old Town – Charles River

Price New: $1,100

Price Used: $650

Old Town is one of the most popular canoe brands. That’s why we have so many on our list. They can be a bit pricey, but they are a trusted brand.

The Charles River is extremely durable and can hold a ton of gear. This is a great canoe to buy used because of these two things.

Stats: 15.8 ft, carrying capacity of 1,100lbs, holds 2 people.

Rating: 4.4/5

14. Sevylor – Colorado Inflatable

Price New: $520

Price Used: $340

Sevylor is a popular brand for strong inflatable canoes. The Colorado model is the size of a kayak, it has adjustable seats, is very durable and offers a great warranty. It is also easy to move around and load up.

However, this canoe is usually only good for a little while. After that, it tends to deflate easy and does not maintain its shape well.

Stats: 10.9 feet, lightweight, and can hold up to 3 people.

Rating 3.5/5

15. Sevylor – Ogden

Price New: $350

Price Used: $260

This is another inflatable canoe that is highly recommended. It is sturdy, attractive, and has a lot of features. It is durable and has fast inflation and deflation.

However, the wind easily moves this canoe and it is harder to control. Many users have found that seats do tend to slide and the valves can be defective. Also, it is not a solo canoe!

Stats: 12.4 feet, lightweight, and can hold up to 3 people.

Rating: 4/5

16. Sevylor – Rio

Price New: $399

Price Used: $295

The Rio is an inflatable canoe designed for just one passenger. Sometimes this canoe is called a kayak, but it is more of a hybrid.

It is made from 18-gauge PVC, tarpaulin and has a nylon cover. This little canoe is best for solo fishermen. It is also a great option for those who are on a tight budget.

Stats: 9ft, weight capacity of 350, and holds one person.

Rating: 4.6/5

17. Clipper Yukon

Price New: $1,550

Price Used: $1,285

The Clipper Yukon is easy to maneuver, it’s quiet and it is beginner-friendly. It has great initial stability and can hold a lot of weight. It comes with flotation chambers which make it incredibly hard to flip and has tractor style seats.

However, this canoe is not very stable on open waters, and you should not kneel or stand in this canoe if at all possible. It also is on the heavier side.

Stats: 16.8 feet, 70 lbs, and can hold up to four people.

Rating: 4.5/5

18. Wenonah – Minnesota II

Price New: $2,900

Price Used: $1,500

Wenonah canoes are popular and have been around for over 50 years. The Minnesota II is made from ultra-light Kevlar and is beautifully made. It handles rough water well and holds a lot of weight.

However, this canoe is very hard to maneuver and load. If it is overfilled, it will quickly sink and is hard to control in the water.

Stats: 18.6 feet, 58 lbs, and can hold up to 4 people.

Rating: 4.2/5

19. Wenonah – King Fisher

Price New: $2,700

Price Used: $1,500

The King Fisher is the most highly recommended canoe for fishing. It has a lot of space and is very lightweight. It is a good rigid canoe and is very durable.

However, although this canoe looks like it can hold a lot of people, it is a tandem only. If overloaded, this canoe will sink. It is also not very fast.

Stats: 16 feet, 55 lbs, and can hold up to 2 people.

Rating: 4.4/5

20. Wenonah – Heron

Price New: $2,500

Price Used: $2,100

The Heron is another great fishing canoe. It’s good for the family and can hold a lot of weight. It is also good for day trips and leisure. It is durable and a great beginners canoe.

However, it does not track straight and is easily moved by wind because it is smaller. Also, many users have found that this canoe is very hard to paddle over long distances.

Stats: 15 feet, 50 lbs, and can hold up to two people.

Rating: 3.3/5

21. Lifetime – Kodiak

Price New: $700

Price Used: $430

The Kodiak canoe is comfortable and offers great stability. It comes with handles which makes it easier to load and maneuver and with cup holders and a good amount of storage.

However, this canoe is not very durable and does not offer great stability. Also, it is a very heavy canoe.

Stats: 13 feet, 96 lbs, and can hold up to three people.

22. Lifetime – Emotion Wasatch

Price New: $699

Price Used: $575

Lifetime designed this canoe to withstand the toughest conditions. It is impact resistant and UV protected. The Emotion Wasatch is also very stable.

This canoe is great for those who want to attach a motor to travel a little bit faster.

Stats: 13 feet, 96 lbs, and holds up to 3 people.

Rating: 4.8/5

23. Pelican – 15.5

Price New: $650

Price Used: $400

Pelican canoes are very popular and well made. This good tracks straight and is quite fast. It’s durable and stable. It also comes with cup holders and molded bench seats.

However, this canoe does not last long and is tough to control on rough water. It can be awkward canoe to carry and users have reported that the seats crack easily.

Stats: 15.5 feet, 81 lbs, and can hold up to three people.

Rating: 4.1/5

24. Pelican – Explorer 14.6 Deluxe

Price New: $550

Price Used: $350

The Explorer 14.6 offers comfortable folding seats, a built-in cooler, cup holders, and carrying handles. It is very durable and offers good stability. It is also very roomy and good for a family.

Despite its shorter length, it is a heavy canoe and is hard to maneuver. Many users have also found that it is harder to paddle than the average canoe.

Stats: 14.6 feet, 90 lbs, and can hold up to 4 people.

Rating: 4.6/5

25. NorthStar Firebird

Price New: $2,898

Price Used: $2,000

Northstar is a brand that makes very high end and well-built canoes. The Firebird is a great example of what this company can do. This canoe is smaller, so it is able to carve the water nicely.

This canoe is able to navigate whitewater and flatwater.

Stats: 13.6 ft and holds one person.

26. NorthStar – B 17

Price New: $2,800

Price Used: $1,800

Similar to the Firebird, B 17 is a very well-made canoe. It is certainly sturdy. This is a good canoe to buy secondhand because of its durability, plus you will save around a thousand bucks.

This canoe is built to hold a lot of gear so it is great on long strips.

Stats: 17 ft, weight capacity of 700, holds up to 3 people.

Rating: 4.2/5

27. Lincoln – Hidden Pond

Price New: $2,400

Price Used: $930

Lincoln canoes are one of the oldest canoe manufacturers and all their canoes are beautifully made. The Hidden Pond tracks well, is very stable, and can hold a lot of weight. It’s a great canoe for canoers with dogs!

However, it is a bit small and is not very durable. The initial stability of this canoe is very low and can easily be tipped while getting inside.

Stats: 12.8 feet, 34 lbs, and can hold up to three people.

Rating: 4.7/5

28. Lincoln – Concord

Price New: $1,600

Price Used: $800

The Concord is a long and lightweight canoe. It is very fast in the water and is ideal for weekend trips. It is easy to handle and control and is great for rough waters.

However, it is a very straight forward canoe and doesn’t have a lot of specs that add to it. Also, it has been known to crack more easily than other canoes.

Stats: 16.6 feet, 46 lbs, and can hold up to two people.

29. Clipper Tripper

Price New: $1,589

Price Used: $1,138

The Clipper Tripper is another well-built canoe from our friends up north. This canoe is great for those who want to go on long trips because of the high carrying capacity and the overall roominess.

The shallow arch hull makes for a stable and smooth ride. Additionally, there are foot braces and low-slung seats that make the experience more comfortable.

Stats: 17.6 feet, 71 lbs, and holds three people.

30. Coleman – 17′

Price New: $850

Price Used: $375

It will be hard to find a Coleman new unless you know someone who has an in. Coleman went out of business a little while ago, but their stuff was durable.

Just because these are no longer made, doesn’t mean you should avoid buying one of these babies used.

Stats: 17 ft, carrying capacity of 650 lbs, and holds 3 people.

31. Souris River – Quetico 17

Price New: $ 3,145

Price Used: $2,500

Souris River Canoes has been around for just over 30 years. They are known for their awesome quality. The Quetico 17 is one of the most popular canoes they make – it makes up 60% of their sales.

This canoe is very versatile. It is good for day trips, fishing, and calmer waters. It is also lightweight, which is an added bonus.

Stats: 17.3 ft, 44 lbs, and holds up to 3 people

32. Souris River – Prospector 16

Price New: $2,745

Price Used: $1,999

This boat is made from nice, durable material that does well in rivers as well as open waters. The Prospector 16 from Souris River is lightweight. It can be used solo or tandem.

Stats: 16 ft, 41 lbs, holds up to 2 people.

How Material Affects Cost

Some canoes are made out of extremely high-quality material, or more rare material, and that can increase the cost as well. Other manufacturers try to get you the least expensive product out there, so they may be made out less-than-fantastic material.

When you are looking for a canoe, used or new, you’ll have to decide what is more important to you: material (quality) or cost?

Here are how the material a canoe is made out of impacts the price:

Material:Average Cost: ($)
Wood2,500-5,000
Roto-Molded/
Polyethylene
250-650
Royalex1,000-1,500
Kevlar500-1,500
Graphite/Carbon700-1,500
Aluminum350-950
Fiberglass350-900
Thermoform600-800
Tuff Stuff1,900-2,950
Inflatable40-350

1. Wood

Wood was the original material used to make canoes. They were carved and made from bark from a birch tree. They often contained wood strips and trunks from different trees, and reeds found in the river.

Of course, as time moved on humans found a more efficient and easier way to make canoes. So although wood is not as popular as it used to be and is no longer the most used material, wood was the staple that started canoes.

As wood canoes are not as popular, usually they are custom made and handcrafted, which can make them a bit pricey. They take time and a lot of energy to build, but this means that they will perform well. Additionally, they are easy to repair and can last long.

Wooden canoes are also works of art. They are beautifully made and extremely durable.

Of course, there are downsides to the wooden canoe. Not only can they be quite pricey, but they are also quite heavy and hard to maneuver – they don’t tend to work with you.

2. Roto-Molded and Polyethylene

Roto-Molded is a process also known as rotational molding. The plastic powder is placed into a heated mold and rotated so that it melts and moves around inside the mold.

Polyethylene is a tough but light synthetic resin, that is made by polymerizing ethylene. In other words, it is the most common form of plastic.

These two materials are the most common type of canoes sold on the market today. This is mainly because they are cheap but durable.

With these two materials the canoe is made in three layers of the plastic, which is what makes it so durable, and less rigid. They also require very little maintenance.

Because canoes made out of these materials can be mass-produced, you will usually find your bargain canoes are put into this category.

3. Royalex

Royalex is lighter than polyethylene and is made of plastic as well as vinyl and hard foam. For most causal canoers, this is the material that is most popular.

Royalex canoes are tough, durable, lightweight, and usually pretty cheap. Royalex canoes have a slicker surface which helps them glide faster through the water as well.

Because of the durability of the material, Royalex canoes are best used in white water. Most of the time, if damaged, Royalex will bounce back into the original shape, if not there are many repair kits and options.

Royalex canoes tend to be heavier than plastic and fiberglass canoes, and if the hull of the canoe is damaged if might be a little harder to fix.

Unfortunately, Royalex canoes are not being made anymore. They were specific to a company in Indiana which was bought out and thus stopped Royalex production.

There are still many out there but soon, with no more being made, they will come to an end. This may drive up the price even more over time.

4. Kevlar

The name Kevlar might sound familiar. Kevlar is the same material used in bulletproof vests. It is a composite fabric that is woven and has an equal weight of steel but is lighter than the average canoe.

Kevlar canoes can be bought with either a gel coat or a skin coat. Kevlar can be used solely on its own but is most often paired with other materials to add to the durability. Kevlar canoes are also one of the fastest canoes used on the water.

Kevlar canoes are stronger than fiberglass, and lighter which makes them highly efficient. Kevlar does have many repair kits available for occasional cracks.

Kevlar canoes are expensive. They lean toward being more pricey and, although they can take a hit, usually they will crack and reveal the coat or the gel.

5. Graphite and Carbon

Graphite and carbon canoes are similar to a Kevlar skin coat, except they tend to weigh a bit less and they are a bit stiffer. This means they can accelerate faster and are more maneuverable.

They are tough canoes but, because they are stiff, tend to crack and tear more than a Kevlar canoe. Graphite and carbon canoes are designed more for weight and stiffness, not necessarily strength.

They aren’t too expensive, but graphite and carbon canoes are better for racing than perhaps fishing or touring.

6. Aluminum

For quite a long time, aluminum canoes were the standard to match. But much like wood, as more materials were found and used, aluminum became less popular.

Aluminum canoes are difficult to make because they have to create a sleek but efficient boat. There are certain curves that have to be in a canoe and aluminum can be difficult to shape.

Aluminum canoes are very durable and they require very little maintenance, and they are not prone to sun damage.

However, aluminum canoes are very heavy and they are rather slow in the water. They aren’t the most beautiful either, because they are hard to shape.

Aluminum canoes are also noisy, because they echo when hit by the water, and they should not be used in the river because the material won’t glide over rocks, it will stick on them. As aluminum is a metal, when it is in the sun it gets very hot and it is easy to get burned from the canoe.

7. Fiberglass Composites

Fiberglass cloth is taken and bonded with resins, like epoxy and vinyl ester, to make a shape. These canoes are often made by hand applying layers to a mold.

Fiberglass composites are extremely lightweight, they need very little maintenance, and they incredibly fast. They are very stiff and because of this, they are very high speed and efficient.

Fiberglass composite canoes are also very easy to fix and when fixed it is hard to even see repairs.

You’ll find that most fiberglass composite canoes are reasonably priced.

8. Thermoform

Thermoform canoes are a different form of plastic. They are lightweight and not expensive. They are quite new, and unlike regular plastic are a bit stronger and a bit lighter.

These thermoform canoes are easy to move around and they are mostly made for recreational purposes.

Thermoform doesn’t tend to do well in cold water with rocks, as it will most likely crack, however, these cracks are on the surface more than throughout the whole boat.

9. Tuff Stuff

Tuff Stuff is actually exclusive to Nova Crafts alone. It is a newly formed material that might be able to replace Royalex. Tuff Stuff is made from basalt cloth and cover in vinyl ester resin.

Tuff Stuff is both incredibly durable, resilient, and fast. They are stiffer than plastic and have much higher efficiency and greater performance. Tuff Stuff is also lighter than other plastic canoes.

As Tuff Stuff is only sold and distributed by Nova, there are still a lot of questions being asked about what it can do. However, Nova has been more than happy to show the world how durable it is.

Here you can see Tuff Stuff survive a hundred-foot drop from a building!

And here you can see Tuff Stuff withstand a bunch of other tests, like a sledgehammer!

10. Inflatable

Inflatable canoes are a little taboo. Most avid canoers don’t like them and prefer to stay away from them.

Inflatable canoes are obviously easier to travel with because they inflate and deflate. They are lightweight and are smaller than regular canoes.

Inflatable canoes are specifically designed to withstand knocks and bumps, so they will bounce off a rough surface if in a collision. Inflatable canoes are also much less expensive than a hard-shell canoe.

Of course, when purchasing something inexpensive, you get what you pay for. If stooping for a cheap inflatable canoe, be prepared for it to not be very durable or high-quality.

Inflating canoes and deflating canoes usually takes about 10 minutes with a pump, but without a pump, it will take much longer. Also, keep in mind how much air is being put into the canoe, or else it could pop and deflate in water.

They are also harder to control because they are not very rigid. There is a significantly higher chance of an inflatable canoe tipping than a regular canoe tipping.

Remember to keep in mind exactly what you are looking for when buying a canoe and you will be able to find the right one for you.

There are hundreds of different brands of canoes that come in all types and all sizes. The most important thing to remember is that you find the right fit for you and your family. Gather as much information as possible and you’ll be able to get the best canoe for your purpose!

Geoff Southworth

I am a California native and I enjoy all the outdoors has to offer. My latest adventures have been taking the family camping, hiking and surfing.

Recent Content

outdoortroop-21 outdoortoop-20